Feminisms--social, political, and theological movements marked by plurality (there is not one 'feminism')

First Wave Feminism
Iron jawed


Focus on gaining legal rights

Seneca falls convention 1848--Lucretia Mott was the keynote speaker; the convention produced a Declaration of Sentiments.


Second Wave Feminism


Focus on gaining social equality.

Simone de Beauvoir's book The Second Sex (one is not born a woman) kicked off the second wave.

Betty Friedan wrote The Feminine Mystique which coined the phrase "the problem with no name" to describe the widespread unhappiness amongst American women.

The Combahee River Collective was a Black feminist Lesbian organization active in Boston from 1974 to 1980. They are perhaps best known for developing the Combahee River Collective Statement, a key document in the history of contemporary Black feminism and the development of the concepts of identity as used among political organizers and social theorists. The CRC focused on intersectionality of race and class. Here, Audrey Lorde said, "your silence will not protect you."

Chicana feminism was represented by people like Gloria Anzaldua.

Consciousness raising groups. 

Third Wave feminism


Response to shortcomings of the second wave. Complicates issues of sexuality, gender identity, performance, race, and culture.

Riot Grrrls

Naomi Wolf-- With the publication of the 1991 bestselling book The Beauty Myth she became a leading spokesperson of what was later described as the third wave of the feminist movement. In the book, she argues that "beauty" as a normative value is entirely socially constructed, and that the patriarchy determines the content of that construction with the goal of reproducing its own hegemony.

Judith Butler


Liberal Feminist Theory - same political liberty across genders

Marxist Feminist Theory - same economic liberty across genders

Radical Feminist Theory - sex, reproduction, care are empowering & oppressing for women

Social Feminist Theory - joins Marxist & radical theories; capitalism & biological

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